Reverified Darius II reign.
After reading more carefully here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Darius_II
King before him died on Dec 25, 424 but Darius II did not take throne for another 1.5 months due to Xerxes II.
However, the above may not be exactly correct due to what I found in another document here:
Darius II ascended the throne after the short reigns of two of his half-brothers, Xerxes II (425-24) and Sogdianus (or Sekyndianus; 424). In the dating formulas of the Babylonian business documents, however, these kings are not mentioned, and Darius II directly succeeds Artaxerxes I.
So, in other words, the way it was documented is that when Xerxes II reigned actually became incorporated into Darius' II reign. Thus, per the documents, Darius II began his reign in 425 BC. Not 423 BC as I have on my timeline. Thus the 6th year would be from some date in 420 to some date in 419.
Since Ezra 6 mentions Adar which always happen in Feb/March, we can safely assume the Temple was finished in Feb/March of 420 BC, to ensure it falls within the 6th year of Darius II.
Now, I discovered a document I will mention later in which it suggests Artaxerxes I began his reign in 470 BC. This would be the year, then, that he issues the decree to rebuild Jerusalem and the beginning of Daniel's 70 weeks. In fact, him issuing such a powerful decree indicates this was his first act to mark the beginning of his rulership, distinct from his father who would die a few years later. Even though the Temple is not finished until 50 years after that, the first 7 weeks of Daniel's 70 weeks prophecy (49 years) would be completed in 421 BC. Now, let's go 62 weeks of years or 434 years from Aviv 421 BC. 433 years is complete in Aviv of 13 AD.
Thus, by the time Yahshua begins His ministry in the fall of 13 AD, we are well into the 434th year or 62 weeks of years.
I discovered a booked call the Chronology of the Old Testament by Floyd Nolen Jones that suggested Artaxerxes actually started his reign in 470 BC. (In actual fact, young Artaxerxes co-reigned with his father for 20 years from 490 BC to 470 BC and 470 BC marked Artaxerxes first year of rulership distinct from his father who would die a few years later. This is why 470 BC can be both the first year of his reign and the 20th year as described in Nehemiah 2).
The remainder of the timeline can be adjusted by beginning Nebechadnezzer's reign in 577 BC rather than 575 BC because, again, we know he reigned for 43 years and died in his 44th year, we just don't know when those years were. If we place his reign starting in 577 BC, then the 69 weeks of Daniel finishes out in 13 AD.
Another problem happens if we shift things back to start in 577 BC, rather than 575 BC -- namely Cyrus the Great is supposed to begin his reign in 559 BC, not 561 BC as the timeline would now dictate. However, it looks like Cyrus the Great might have indeed begun his reign in 561 BC because of what I found here:
Wikipedia says Cyrus' reign ended in December 530 BC (which I presume was when he died, but that doesn't matter) and his reign was between 29 to 31 years long.
That would mean that his reign could have begun in 561 BC, and not 559 BC. Please give me evidence/arguments that allow for his reign to have begun in 561 BC.
One last problem arises. Darius I is supposed to have begun his reign in 522 BC but in my revised timeline, this would be shifted back to 524 BC. All historical documents record Camybses II dying in 522 BC and Darius I beginning in 522 BC. However, I would like to put forth an alternative. If you google Cambyses II and 524 BC you will find a host of articles about how his entire army disappeared in 524 BC in the deserts of Egypt. Is it possible, due to this overwhelming loss of 50,000 Persian troops, that Darius I took matters into his own hands and murdered Cambyses II in 524 BC, the same year his entire army vanished without a trace? I think it highly probable. Thus, Darius I removed the incompetent Persian King and took over Persia himself. In the same year, he rebuilds the Persian army and invades Babylon, killing Belshazzar and conquering Babylon.
It is interesting to note that Darius I may have very well reaped what he sowed. In 490 BC, history records the Battle of Marathon in which Darius I attempts to send his vast Persian army to conquer Athens. The Athens repel the assault and kill over 6000 of his men. Darius I suffers a humiliating defeat which lends even more credence that 490 BC was the year Xerxes I murdered Darius I and removed the incompetent king to take over Persia himself. Thus Darius I suffers the very fate he exacted on Cambyses II decades earlier.
So, here is the corrected timeline in full:
577 BC Nebuchadnezzer begins his reign - Jehoiakim’s 3rd Year (Daniel 1:1)
576 BC (Daniel chapter 2 takes place)
575 BC Jehoiakim rebels against Babylon’s rule after 3 years (II Kings 24:1)
570 BC Jehoiakim has ruled 10 years and in his 11th year is killed by Nebuchadnezzer (II Kings 23:36, 24:6) Jehoiachin ruled 3 months and was taken in the 8th year of King Nebuchadnezzer (II Kings 24:12)
569 BC Zedekiah becomes king and is attacked by Nebuchadnezzer Nebuchadnezzer’s 9th Year (II Kings 25:1)
561 BC Cyrus the Great begins ruling. Persia does not conquer Babylon until Darius according to Daniel 5:31.
558 BC (19th year of Nebuchadnezzer -- 2 Kings 25:8-9 -- temple burned to ground) -- Zedekiah is taken captive in the 11th year of his reign (II Kings 25:2)
557 BC 1st Year of Captivity has elapsed
556 BC 2
555 BC 3
554 BC 4
553 BC 5
552 BC 6
551 BC 7
550 BC 8
549 BC 9
548 BC 10
547 BC 11
546 BC 12
545 BC 13
544 BC 14
543 BC 15
542 BC 16
541 BC 17
540 BC 18
539 BC 19
538 BC 20
537 BC 21
536 BC 22
535 BC 23
534 BC 24 ----- Jubilee
533 BC 25 Nebuchadnezzer, after ruling 43 years, dies in his 44th year of rule, 1st year of his grandson, Belshazzar, Daniel chapter 7 takes place Jehoiachin in his 37th year of imprisonment is released! II Kings 25:27
532 BC 26 2nd year of Belshazzar
531 BC 27
530 BC 28 Cyrus the Great dies (4th year of Belshazzar)
529 BC 29 5th year of Belshazzar (Daniel chapter 8 takes place)
528 BC 30 6th year of Belshazzar
527 BC 31 7th year of Belshazzar
526 BC 32 8th year of Belshazzar
525 BC 33 9th year of Belshazzar
524 BC 34 10th year of Belshazzar Daniel 5:30-31 says Darius slays Belshazzar and takes over Babylon. Darius I conquers Babylon in September of the year. A few months before this, in the Hebrew month of Av (July/August), 34 years had elapsed of the 70 year captivity. We know from Daniel 9:1 that it is in the 1st year of Darius that he makes his prayer to Yah for his people to return to Jerusalem and Judah. So, Daniel made this prayer sometime either on or after September, which means in the 35th year of the captivity. 35 is exactly half of 70. So, literally, in the midst of the 70 year captivity, right in the middle, Daniel makes his prayer! 10th year of Belshazzar. (according to the source: http://www.founders.org/ss/explore/081405.htm Ancient cunieform texts indicate that Nabonidus, the son of Nebuchadnezzar lived in Tema, North Arabia, for approximately 10 years. During that decade, Belshazzar ruled Babylon as his father’s regent. Belshazzar is the son of Nabonidus and the grandson of Nebuchadnezzar)